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HISTORY OF SLOVAKIA

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History of Slovakia

The region, called today Slovakia belonged in the 9th Century to the Greet Moravian Empire. During the processing to the Carpathian Basin of the Hungarian (895-896) the territory became under Hungarian authority. Two tribes, - the tribe of Huba and that one of Lehel - of the Hungarian settlement and three tribes of the kabars settled down in this region. The northern high mountains were used as frontier.

At the beginning of the 11th Century the counties system of the King St Stephen covered the region of the Highland as well, except one part of the North-western part. The forests of Trencsén, Zólyom, Szepes and Sáros were not included to this system, as they were no inhabitants at that time.

In the 12th-13th. Centuries grown up the mine towns, based on the raw material of the Highland. The most remarkable ones are Szomolnokbánya and Körmöcbánya based on goldmines, Selmecbánya, Telkibánya és Zólyomlipcse based on silver mines, Besztercebánya based on copper mines. The profit of this mines and right of coinage was one of the most important sources of financial income of the Hungarian Kings.

In the 14th century this region developed further. This development is shown by the fact that the greatest Warlord Csák Máté ruled this territory. He led the opposition against the first Hungarian Anjou king Karl Roberto (1301 - 1308 ).

In the 15th century Zsigmond of Luxemburg started strengthening the walls of the town and the stronghold of Pozsony. Between 1420 - 1430 he made paramount achievement  in reinforcing the castle because of the bohemian menace. Some of the bohemian wariers settled at time in the strongholds of the Highland. Pozsony was the center of Zsigmond fighting against this bohemian wariars. The important and value of these town of the Highland is clearly shown by the fact that Zsigmond pledged 16 towns of Szepes to the polish king to cover the expenses of his Dalmatian wars.

After the loss of war at Mohács on 17. November 1526. it was at Pozsony that Ferdinand of Habsburg was crowned to Hungarian King by the Hungarian noblemen. This was the beginning of the Habsburg supremacy of the northern part of Hungary. During the osman occupation of the Carpathian basin (1541-1686) the integrity of Hungary was kept in the Highland. That is proven by the presents of chain of stronghold and outpost facing the osman attack. (Érsekújvár, Drégelypalánk, Fülek- these are strongholds where Hungarian troops stood up against the osmans.

In 1608 Pozsony became the center of the crowning ceremonies and the noble council. 12 may 1635 Péter Pázmány signed the memorandum of establishment of the Hungarian University of Nagyszombat. The first Hungarian faculty of medicine was established in 1770 at the University of Nagyszombat.

After the Osman Empire withdrew from the Carpathian basin the hall territory of Hungary became a part of the Habsburg Empire. Couple of aristocrats from the Highland rose up against the Habsburg occupation. Their castles became the centers of the Hungarian resistant against the Habsburg suppression. (Zrínyi Ilona- Munkács 1687, Rákóczi Ferenc- Eperjes , Kassa, Zólyom, Lőcse 1703 - 1711.)

At this time, in 17th - 18th centuries came Slovak settlers to the deserted Hungarian villages. They grew in number in the towns, villages of the Highland after leaving the northern mountains and moving to the well developed mine towns. This resulted in a change of the pattern of nationalities in the town of Körmöc and Besztercebánya which were beforehand purely inhabited by citizens of germen origin. Until this time the Slovaks were suppressed by the Czech cultural pressure. This pressure is shown by the fact that the Slovakian reformation was led by the Czech Bible of Kralice.

At the middle of the 19th century the Slovakian nationalist movement gained momentum which was mainly cultural and linguistic ambitions up till the 1840s. At that time 1,7 million Slovak people leaved in Hungary which was 13 % of the 13 million inhabitant of the country.

After the and of the First World War the geopolitical changes and the disintegration of the Ausrto- Hungarian monarchy made it possible that the independent Czecho- Slovak State could be established. On 3. December. 1918. the leaders of the Victorious Entente countries ordered the Government of Hungary to give up the Highland. The recruits of the new reformed State of Czecho-Slovakia occupied until 1. Jan. 1919. From Feb 1919 the Slovakian Ministry started its work with full power at Pozsony. At the end of this process 61648 m2 of Hungary was occupied by Chechoslovakia with 3 mill 516815 inhabitants (Hungarian 1, 1 mill , Slovak 1,7 mill, germen 0,3 mill )

On 2 Nov 1938 , according to the decision foreign ministers of Ribbentropp (Germany) and Ciano (Italy) the southern territory of Highland with the towns of Kassa , Munkács, Ungvár, Komárom, Rimaszombat, Beregszász ) was given back to Hungary (12000 m2 ), 90 % of Hungarian nationality.

After the end of the II. World War this region and these towns were again incorporated in the Czechoslovakia. In 1946-48 there was a change of citizens between Hungary and Chechoslovakia, 74 000 Slovak people left Hungary and 100000

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